Scientists in China Believe New Drug Can Stop Pandemic 'Without Vaccine'
22 maja, 2020 Dariusz J. Nasiek, MD
A Chinese laboratory has been developing a drug it believes has the power to bring the coronavirus pandemic to a halt.
The outbreak first emerged in China late last year before spreading across the world, prompting an international race to find treatments and vaccines.
A drug being tested by scientists at China's prestigious Peking University could not only shorten the recovery time for those infected, but even offer short-term immunity from the virus, researchers say.
Xie, director of the university's Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Genomics, told AFP that the drug has been successful at the animal testing stage.
"When we injected neutralizing antibodies into infected mice, after five days the viral load was reduced by a factor of 2,500," said Xie.
The drug uses neutralizing antibodies—produced by the human immune system to prevent the virus infecting cells—which Xie's team isolated from the blood of 60 recovered patients.
A study on the team's research suggests that using the antibodies provides a potential "cure" for the disease and shortens recovery time.
He added that the drug should be ready for use later this year and in time for any potential winter outbreak of the virus, which has infected 4.8 million people around the world and killed more than 315,000.
Planning for the clinical trial is underway and China already has five potential coronavirus vaccines at the human trial stage.
But the World Health Organization has warned that developing a vaccine could take 12 to 18 months. Scientists have also pointed to the potential benefits of plasma—a blood fluid—from recovered individuals who have developed antibodies to the virus enabling the body's defenses to attack it.
More than 700 patients have received plasma therapy in China, a process which authorities said showed "very good therapeutic effects".
"However, it (plasma) is limited in supply," Xie said, noting that the 14 neutralizing antibodies used in their drug could be put into mass production quickly.
Prevention and cure
Using antibodies in drug treatments is not a new approach, and it has been successful in treating several other viruses such as HIV, Ebola and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).
Xie said his researchers had "an early start" since the outbreak started in China before spreading to other countries.
The study showed that if the neutralizing antibody was injected before the mice were infected with the virus, the mice stayed free of infection and no virus was detected. This may offer temporary protection for medical workers for a few weeks possibly a few months.
More than 100 vaccines for COVID-19 are in the works globally, but as the process of vaccine development is more demanding, Xie is hoping that the new drug could be a faster and more efficient way to stop the global march of the coronavirus.
"We would be able to stop the pandemic with an effective drug, even without a vaccine," he said.
After injecting neutralizing antibodies into infected mice, the viral load was reduced by a factor of 2,500.
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